Many cities have eliminated maintenance costs for public toilets from their budgets, shutting them down or leaving them to fall into disarray. Meanwhile, others are paying their citizens to desist from open defecation, while a handful of entrepreneurs are seizing the opportunities afforded by the unavoidable call of nature.
In the 1930s, a young boy of 11 fled his village to Cairo, only to become an apprentice to a foreign cobbler who made shoes for Egypt’s royal family. 20 years later, and in the aftermath of the 1952 ousting of King Faruq, the shoemaker was forced to leave Egypt, leaving the young man – who had by then mastered the craft – with the capital’s most prestigious shoe workshop. But the young apprentice’s ambitions exceeded those of his master, and in 1954, he established Egypt’s first shoe factory; that man was Mohamed Lotfy, founder of Lotfy footwear.
Over the course of this four-part series on entrepreneurship, we examine the factors that affect Cairene entrepreneurs, from access to markets and human capital to culture and support structures to finance and policy.
A joint American-French research paper reveals how property prices - and not just income, education and weight - affect self-rated health among a spectrum of residents in Seattle, USA, and Paris, France.